Nursing definition

Nursing is an art and science including activities, concepts and skills related to basic social sciences , physical sciences, ethical and  contemporary issues and many other fields.

Nursing means protection, improvement and develop health and abilities to an optimum, disease and injury prevention, healing pains by diagnosis of reflections and  treatment of them , defending  the patient?s rights , families and communities.

Henderson defined nursing in functional terms: "The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to a peaceful death).


Professional nurse

A person who offers special services according to scientific standards, by following the ethics. Social values, academic preparation, motivation, autonomy, obligation, social perception and ethical rules are fundamentals of this profession.

Expertise in nursing is a result of knowledge and clinical experiences and critical thinking skills are essential for nursing.

Features in nursing definition:


1)Specific target statement:

The purpose of nursing is promoting health, recovery, development , prevention of the disease, injury or disability.

At the time of illness or disability, The purpose of nursing is Minimizing  the pain of people And enabling them to understand the disease, Treatment and its consequences.

When death is inevitable, The purpose of nursing is Maintaining the best possible quality of life to its end.

2) Expression of specific interventions:

Nursing interventions is related to empowering people, helping them to achieve, keep or improve their independence. Nursing is a rational, Physical and Emotional process which Includes identifying nursing needs, Therapeutic interventions, Individual care ,information ,training, Consultation and Physical, emotional and spiritual supports.

3) Specific Domain: specific nursing field includes unique responses and experiences of people from health, illness, weakness and disabilities related to health. Responses and reactions of individuals may be physiological, psychological, social, cultural, spiritual or often a combination of these all.


4) Special focus: Nursing focuses on the overall responses of individuals, not just a specific aspect of a person or a specific pathological illness condition.

5) a specific basic value: Nursing is based on moral values which respect dignity, independence and uniqueness of mankind.

. The relationship between nurse and patient and responsibility for decisions and actions are respected by the nurses.

. These values are written in the form of codes of ethics and are protected by a professional rules system

6) Commitment to cooperation: Nurses work in partnership with patients, their relatives, other caregivers, and in collaboration with other members of a multi-disciplinary team.

Nurses will be personally and professionally responsible for their decisions and actions whether they supervise others work or supervised by others.



Nursing goals: improve and maintain health, Take care of people who have a  health risk, Help recovery, Facilitate independence, Meeting needs, recovery/ Maintaining well-being/ Quality of Life.

A nurse is an individual with an undergraduate, graduate or postgraduate university degree in professional nursing who can perform the following six roles in dealing with clients in every position and place.

1-Caring role

2- Therapeutic role

3- Protective role

4-training role

5-Coordinating role

6- Supporting role

Responsibilities and professional roles of the nurse:

Independence and accountability:

Independence is one of the basic elements of the nursing profession. In nursing there are some procedures that a nurse can do without a physicians instruction. One of the ways to achieve greater independence is to raise the level of education  But it should be kept in mind that

with increasing independence, responsibility and accountability also increase. Accountability means that the nurse is professionally and legally responsible for the type and quality of nursing care provided.

Taking care:  As a caregiver, the nurse helps patient to achieve health through the recovery process. The recovery is beyond treatment of certain diseases. The nurse identifies all the patients health care needs, including methods for emotional, spiritual and social well-fare improvement.

Protection: A nurse supports the human and legal rights of the patient And in case of any need , cooperates to take back those rights. A nurse supports a patient regarding his/her culture and religion.

Providing more information to assist making decision, helping maintain family relationships and defending patient?s rights against policies and actions that harm the health of a patient are examples of a nurses actions in his/her supportive role.

Training: Providing information and training a patient is one of the important roles of a nurse. In order to perform this role, a nurse examines the extent of patient?s understanding of educational issues in addition to training the patient. a nurse also strengthens patients behaviors and learning and evaluates the progress of the patient in learning. Education is provided either formally or informally.

Communication: communication with patient, families, other nurses and health care staff and society is a necessity for nursing. Without good communication, it is impossible to provide effective care, make decisions, protect, rehabilitate or train the patient educate .Quality of communication is an important factor in meeting needs of individuals, families and communities.

Management and leadership: A Nurse coordinates activities of other members of the care team as a manager while providing care to the patient. For effective management, a nurse uses clinical decision-making skills. a nurse will plan the necessary activities by identifying the best approach for each patient and in this way provides counseling and collaboration with the patient, family, and other health care staff.

Consultation: Consultation is an interpersonal Process which helps the patient in making decisions to improve healing and general well-being. Most of family members or people close to the family are involved in counseling sessions. Every participant should feel comfortable in these situations and environments. Consultation can be formal or informal like training.

Changes in nursing process

Professional nursing is not static and unchangeable. it continually grows and as society and lifestyle change ,Health care and nursing methods also change. The current philosophy of nursing is a sign of a holistic process towards the patient. Nursing requires acquisition of social sciences and other related fields  in care  development route.

Nursing degree levels

Diploma in Nursing:

A license which approves attendance of Short-Term Courses and Low Levels of Nursing Education. It is usually offered in hospitals and students who receive this type of diploma cannot attend treatment and nursing care interventions and are only responsible for occupational and personal health of the patients. with this type of diploma, they have the permission to apply  for a bachelors degree in related disciplines.

Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN):

It is a four-year course in order to receive a degree in nursing science.

Nursing is an independent branch of medical sciences whose graduates form part of the health team in various fields related to providing health, educational research, counseling, prevention, management and supporting services for medical care and rehabilitation.

Nursing Graduate Course is the first nursing degree of which the program is based on scientific criteria and Islamic values.

-Physical characteristics and needed Abilities

A nurse must have complete physical, mental and spiritual wellbeing, and be a precise, enthusiastic and patient person. He/she must also have adequate control over his/her personal feelings.

-Degrees and educational programs

Individuals can study in this field after obtaining a diploma from a secondary school and passing an entrance exam in the field of empirical Sciences and then continue their education for postgraduate and PhD degrees.

-Duration of education

The period of study is at least 4 years and maximum 5 years (in special circumstances and with the approval of the education department of medical university such as educational leave, etc.).

-Location and job conditions

Possible employment places can be hospitals, clinics and public and private para-clinics or as professors at universities and etc.

This field or occupation is in most state and private healthcare facilities, etc., in working shifts (morning, evening and night) or constant shift. work environment conditions depend on type of nursing responsibilities at hospital departments and treatment centers and these conditions differ from each other in each department (emergency, pediatric, internal and surgical, ICU, CCU, operating room).

-Number of course units

total number of units required for bachelor of nursing program is 130 units and is based on the course syllabus as follows:

General courses 20 units - Basic courses 16 units - Main courses 12 units - Exclusive courses 46 units - Apprenticeship 12 units - Apprenticeship in the field 24 units.

Master of nursing:

It refers to a program that encompasses higher education after bachelor?s and is the first postgraduate degree.


The purpose of creating this program is to educate deserved, committed and skillful individuals who master foundations of nursing science and existing scientific texts and gain the efficiency and desirability and scientific and practical skills By familiarizing themselves with the advanced methods of research in science so that they can perform every aspect of nursing, education, research and management, thereby compensating  existing deficiencies of the members of The faculty and skillful human resources of universities and institutions of higher education and health centers and use scientific and research papers in nursing and related sciences to advance the knowledge boundaries and help to create a scientific environment in the community.

Branches of Bachelors Degree in Nursing

A nursing bachelors degree holder can apply for 22 masters degrees) In the Ministry of Health exam(:


Epidemiology- Health Education- Biostatistics-Nursing- Social Welfare-Anatomical sciences-nutrition science- Health Sciences in Nutrition-Physiology- Library and medical Informing -medical documents- Management of health services- rehab Management - Health Economics) With 2 trends in health development-Health and treatment policy planning(-Nanotechnology-medical education-Nursing special Care- Medical Biotechnology- Ergonomics- Medical Informatics-Neonatal Care Nursing- related branches: Including medicine and medical education.


The total number of units in this program is 32 units. If necessary, students must first complete some bachelor courses for a maximum of two semesters as a prerequisite.

Basic Courses 7 Units - Specialized and Mandatory Courses 19 Units - Thesis (with Research Project) 6 Units -total Units 32 .

Note: Obviously, if the student is required to attend some of the prerequisite courses, he/she will attend them during this program. Definitely   , the maximum length of program allowed for such students will increase according to the prerequisite courses attended.


Nursing (phd):

It is The highest level in this field. Graduates of this program can serve as faculty members in universities, educational and research centers of country.

Entry terms and conditions:

Having general conditions for entering higher education.

Having a Masters degree Or professional doctorate or higher ,related to the required field of study From one of the universities inside the country  or abroad, approved by the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and the Ministry of Health, treatment and Medical Education.

Note: Identifying the permitted field of study for each degree holder as well as determining eligibility conditions are done by the  relevant planning group at the Supreme planning Council.

Acceptance in the specialized entrance examinations for Ph.D.

Having a recommendation Letter from at least 2 previous instructors of the applicant based on his/her qualification to study at ph.D level.

Gaining an Acceptance Score in one of the English language tests

The length of the program and its structure


Ph.D. in nursing program length is in accordance with the regulations approved by the Supreme planning Council and the courses are presented in units.

This program consists of two educational and research stages.

The total number of educational and research units in the Ph.D. in Nursing program is 45 .

Educational stage: The total number of educational stage units in the Ph.D. in nursing program is 25.

Research stage: The number of units in the research stage is 20 in the form of a thesis, which will be done and written according to the student?s interest and need of society in a particular field.